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THE SHIPS
HULK MASTERS
    Duncan Campbell
    John Capper
    Aaron Graham
    William Williams
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The Hulk Masters, and the man who exposed the nefarious nature of the Hulks, are illustrated here in imagined portraits by Chandler Carlson.

Duncan Campbell made a portion of his considerable fortune transporting convicts to America— his ships returning each time with profitable cargoes of tobacco. All of that came to an end in 1776 when the colonies declared their independence and said, "No more British convicts." It was then that the profitable contract for confining convicts aboard his ships anchored at Woolwich fell into his lap. He continued as Great Britain's "for profit" hulk master for twenty-five years, before giving up the contract to devote more of his attention to his lucrative West Indies sugar trade. During all of Campbell's tenure conditions of confinement aboard the old vessels were lamentable, and life for the prisoners was unrelieved misery. Mr. Campbell bore the convicts no ill will. It was simply a matter of conducting business profitably. Thus we have an early demonstration of the usual results of prison privatization.


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